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瓦尔特·博萨德与罗伯特·卡帕在中国

  • 免费x站福利海报
  • 《延安抗日军政大学的演讲》Lecture at the "Red Academy", Yan'an 瓦尔特·博萨德Walter Bosshard 1938年
  • 《中国空中武装力量(双重曝光)》Chinese Air Force (double exposure) 瓦尔特·博萨德Walter Bosshard 1930年
  • 《北京附近抗击日本侵略军的据点》Chinese position in the battle against the advancing Japanese troops 瓦尔特·博萨德Walter Bosshard 1933年
  • 《延安抗日军政大学的学生》Students of the "Red Academy", Yan'an 瓦尔特·博萨德Walter Bosshard 1938年
  • 《受伤的士兵,徐州前线,台儿庄》Wounded soldier, Tai'erzhuang, Xuzhou front, China 罗伯特·卡帕Robert Capa 1938年
  • 《观看中日空战的人群,汉口》Crowds watching the air battle between Japanese and Chinese planes over Hankou, China 罗伯特·卡帕Robert Capa 1938年
  • 《空袭警报响起时寻找避难所的人群,汉口》Crowds running for shelter when air-raid alarm sound, Hankou, China 罗伯特·卡帕Robert Capa 1938年
  • 《日本空袭后正在灭火的平民,汉口》Civilians extinguishing a fire after a Japanese air raid, Hankou, China 罗伯特·卡帕Robert Capa 1938年
免费x站福利时间:
2019-10-29 - 2020-05-03
免费x站福利城市:
北京 - 北京
免费x站福利机构:
清华大学艺术博物馆
免费x站福利地址:
北京清华大学校内光华路
策 展 人:
彼得·普夫伦德
免费x站福利备注:
总策划:苏丹
项目统筹:王晨雅 王兆 王瑛
视觉统筹:王鹏
免费x站福利及视觉设计:骆佳
免费x站福利执行:王兆 刘徽建 骆佳
研究及档案工作:马德琳·德普拉泽斯 卡塔琳娜·里普斯坦因 莱亚·菲雷尔
照片数码印刷工作室:苏黎世实验室
文本翻译:马阅
国际事务:王瑛 张玮
行政事务:马艳艳
主办单位:清华大学艺术博物馆 瑞士摄影基金会
支持单位:瑞士驻华大使馆 瑞士文化基金会上海办公室 瑞士联邦文化办公室
借展机构:瑞士摄影基金会,瑞士
苏黎世联邦理工学院当代历史档案馆,瑞士
乌尔斯泰因图片报,德国
国际摄影中心,美国
学术支持机构:
北京博物馆协会历史和艺术影像专业委员会
《中国摄影》
《中国摄影报》
《大众摄影》
中国摄影出版社

免费x站福利介绍

对中国而言,20世纪30年代是至关重要的十年。本次免费x站福利展示了两位杰出摄影记者的作品,他们从不同的角度报道中国这一时期的战争景象。瑞士记者瓦尔特·博萨德自1931年以来生活和工作于中国。罗伯特·卡帕是当时最著名的战地摄影师,他于1938年作为摄制组的一员来到中国。

瓦尔特·博萨德和罗伯特·卡帕既是好友,同时也是《生活》杂志的竞争对手。他们不约而同地报道类似的事迹、洞察相同的战争画面。这让我们有独特的机会看到一个多层次的叙述:透过西方的视角观看中国的历史,关于新闻摄影中真理的问题,以及战时摄影的力量。

The 1930s were a crucial decade for China. The exhibition presents the work of two outstanding photojournalists who reported about China at war from different angles. The Swiss correspondent Walter Bosshard had lived and worked in China since 1931. Robert Capa, the most famous war photographer of his time, came to China in 1938 as a member of a film crew.

Walter Bosshard and Robert Capa were friends, but also rivals regarding publications in Life. They covered similar stories and found themselves observing the same scenes of war. This gives us the unique chance to present a multi-layered narrative - about the history of China seen through Western eyes, about the question of truth in photojournalism, and about the power of photography in wartime.

直面冲突

对中国而言,20世纪30年代是至关重要的十年。从九一八事变到华北事变,再到卢沟桥事变,日本侵略军侵占中国东北,蚕食华北,直至发动全面侵华战争。漫长的抗日战争,日本人曾试图占领整个亚洲--这些导致了中国主要城市连续遭遇侵略、数百万中国民众受害。西方世界则隔岸观火,试图在中国人民极力反抗装备精良的日军战争中维护自己的利益。

在第二次中日战争爆发之后的1938年,许多外国记者、外交官和知识分子聚集在汉口(瓦尔特·博萨德和罗伯特·卡帕也在其中),见证这个在日军长期轰炸下即将沦陷的城市。

罗伯特·卡帕是当时声名远扬的战地记者,来中国一行是为荷兰制片人尤里斯·伊文思的影片《四万万人民》担当摄像师;卡帕把中国人民对日军的抵抗看作欧洲反法西斯斗争的平行运动,他期望能在前线捕捉到振奋人心的报道。

瓦尔特·博萨德是《柏林日报》、《图片邮报》和《生活》等重要杂志的瑞士记者,曾经在中国生活和旅行八年,并作为中国抗日战争无偏见的专家扬名在外。他的声音被西方世界所倾听,他的摄影为世界所关注。

瓦尔特·博萨德和罗伯特·卡帕曾是好友,也是《生活》杂志的竞争对手。他们不约而同地报道类似的事迹、洞察相同的战争画面。然而他们的表达的方式却有所不同:博萨德对中国文化有着深入的了解,在中国拥有广泛的人脉,其中不乏当时最有影响力的一群人。他多次亲身远行考察了解中国,曾长期居住在北京,浸染在中国的日常生活之中。不同的是,罗伯特·卡帕是怀着理想主义愿景来到中国的,他在中国仅仅停留了几个月。作为一位流动摄影工作者,他的拍摄任务充满困难,因为他是影片团队中的一员,而这个团队被国民党持续地监控。他总是感到自己的才华被束缚,即便如此却还是记录了大量令人震撼的故事。

当我们试图用影像还原中国20世纪30年代的悲痛历史时,总会引用罗伯特·卡帕的摄影作品,但这些作品的历史背景却很少被人关注。它们应该被置于国际新闻和摄影报道兴起的大环境下进行解读,而这一点在瓦尔特·博萨德的报道中尤为明显。纵观两位摄影师的拍摄轨迹,以1931年在南京举行的第一届国民大会为开端,我们便能够感知当时那复杂的历史背景。在那个时代,恐怕很难再找到像他们一样如此全面展现1931-1938年中国风貌的摄影师。

本次免费x站福利由瑞士摄影基金会和清华大学艺术博物馆合作举办,首次同时展出这两位杰出摄影师的作品,包括大量迄今为止鲜为人知的原版照片、影像和文献。

瑞士摄影基金会馆长
彼得·普夫伦德

Facing the Conflicts

The 1930s were a crucial decade for China. From the September 18th Incident to North China Incident, then to the Lugouqiao Incident, the Japanese aggressor army invaded the northeast of China, encroached the North of China, and eventually declared the Japanese War of Aggression Against China. The long lasting war against the Japanese, who strived to conquer Asia, led to continuous attacks on major Chinese cities, millions of victims, and a massive invasion into the country. The Chinese resistance against the heavily equipped Japanese army was closely observed by the Western countries who tried to defend their own interests in the Far East.

In 1938, one year after the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese war, many foreign correspondents, diplomats and intellectuals gathered in Hankou to witness the imminent fall of the city after a long period of Japanese bombing - among them Robert Capa and Walter Bosshard.

Robert Capa, the most famous war photographer of his time, came to China as a cameraman with the Dutch filmmaker Joris Ivens (realizing his film The 400 Million); Capa saw the Chinese resistance as a parallel to the antifascist battle in Europe and hoped to produce exciting reports from the frontlines.

Walter Bosshard, the Swiss correspondent of important illustrated mgazines such as Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung, Picture Post, or Life, had already lived and travelled in China for eight years and had made himself a name as an unbiased expert regarding the Anti-Japanese War. His voice was heard in the Western World, and his photographs were sought after internationally.

Walter Bosshard and Robert Capa were friends, but also rivals regarding publications in Life. They covered similar stories and found themselves observing the same scenes of war. However, their approach was different: Bosshard had deep knowledge of the Chinese culture. He could rely on an excellent network, including the most influential personalities of his time. He had explored the country in several expeditions. Living in Beijing permanently, he knew the Chinese everyday life. Robert Capa, on the other hand, came to China with an idealistic vision and for a few months only. As a roving photographer he had to fulfill a difficult mission, since he was part of a film team that was under constant observation of the Guomindang. He always felt too restricted to fully display his talents, but nevertheless he managed to produce a remarkable number of fascinating stories.

When we come to visualize the traumatic history of China in the 1930s, Robert Capa's photographs are a spectacular and often quoted source. But their background is rarely considered - they have to be read in the context of international news production and the booming years of photojournalism. This becomes evident through the juxtaposition with Walter Bosshards reportages. By following their development, beginning with the First National Assembly in Nanjing 1931, we can grasp the complexity of the historical situation. It is hard to find a comparable account from one single author, informative and visually attractive at the same time, that gives such a comprehensive view of China between 1931 and 1938.

This exhibition, produced by the Fotostiftung Schweiz (Swiss Foundation for Photography) in collaboration with Tsinghua University Art Museum, brings together the two prominent photojournalists for the first time, displaying a large number of hitherto unknown vintage prints, films and documents.

Director of Fotostiftung Schweiz (Swiss Foundation for Photography)
Peter Pfrunder

镜头和眼睛,身体与身份

瓦尔特·博萨德和罗伯特·卡帕都试图成为战争中的第三只眼睛,但二人成功的路径不同。瓦尔特·博萨德利用的是身份,作为中立国的记者,他可以在残酷的战时状态下自由穿梭于几个对立的阵营之中;罗伯特·卡帕利用的则是身体,他出发于其中一个阵营,在依靠勇气和机智接近冲突的前沿。身份是一个社会概念,它更多的是政治的产物,因此瓦尔特·博萨德看到的是战争的幕后风云,包括政治家的斡旋、国家和社会的动员等。身体和勇气是情感驱动的,它的价值在行动中捕捉,意义在行动中体现。

镜头是一部忠实的机器,反映着眼睛的构造形式。决定它输出结果的是躲在其后摄影家的眼睛,那些眼睛代表着意识本身,它们随着身体在移动以寻找立场、角度。勇敢的身体和特殊的身份经常成为杰出摄影作品产生的决定性因素,因为身份和身体是进入事实现场的载体。

2018年受邀访问瑞士摄影基金会,在那里看到了一张大幅的合影,罗伯特·卡帕的身体和瓦尔特·博萨德不同身姿罕见地组合在一起,一个端坐在画面的中心,另一个贴近地面把头依附于前者身上。身体的两种姿态其实就是二人对待摄影的态度,是两位杰出摄影家潜意识的表现形式。

清华大学艺术博物馆副馆长
苏丹

Lens and Eyes, Body and Identity

Walter Bosshard and Robert Capa attempted to be the third eye on the battlefield and they achieved success in different ways. Walter Bossard as a neutral journalists moved freely in opposing camps under the brutal wartime conditions by virtue of his social identity. While Robert Capa started from one camp and approached the front lines of conflict with courage and tact, taking the advantage of his body. Identity was a social concept and more a political product. Therefore, Walter Bossard saw the war behind scenes including the mediation of politicians, and the mobilization of the state and society. However, the body and courage were both emotion-driven, whose value and meaning were captured and reflected in action.

The camera is a faithful machine, reflecting the structure of the eye. What determines its output is the eyes of the photographer. Those eyes represent the consciousness itself, moving with the body to find the position and standpoint. Generally, brave bodies and special identities are the decisive factors in the creation of outstanding photographs, because the two factors are the carriers to enter the scene of fact. In 2018, I was invited to visit Fotostiftung Schweiz (Swiss Foundation for Photography), where I saw a big group photo of Robert Capa and Walter Bossard rarely combined in different postures. One sat upright in the center of the frame, while the other sat close to the ground with his head attached to the former. Actually, two body gestures were just like their attitude towards photography, which was the manifestation of the subconscious of two outstanding photographers.

Vice Director of Tsinghua University Art Museum
Su Dan

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